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THE INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC)

ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AT UCSF

I. Overview
II. Species-specific considerations
III. Commonly used anesthetics and analgesics
IV. Species-specific anesthesia-analgesia formularies:

Cat
Dog
• Frog
• Fish

• Guinea Pig
• Hamster
Mouse
Nonhuman primates

Rabbit
Rat
Swine

SWINE FORMULARY

Note that all of these doses are approximations and must be titrated to the animal’s strain, age, sex and individual responses. Significant departures from these doses should be discussed with a veterinarian. Doses will also vary depending on what other drugs are being administered concurrently.

All doses are listed as milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) unless otherwise noted.

DRUG NAME DOSE (mg/kg) & ROUTE FREQUENCY NOTES
Inhalation anesthetics
Recommended:
Isoflurane or Halothane or Sevoflurane
1-3% inhalant to effect (up to 5% for induction). Up to 8% for Sevoflurane Whenever general anesthesia is required Concurrent preemptive analgesia is recommended for survival surgery
Must use precision vaporizer. Mask induction is possible with very small pigs.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) Up to 60% with oxygen Whenever deep sedation or general anesthesia is required Not acceptable for surgery as sole agent – usually used with inhalant anesthetic to potentiate effect and lower required dose
Dissociative (Ketamine and/or Telazol®) combinations
Ketamine alone 11 – 33 IM Any time sedation is required Not typically used as sole agent in swine
Recommended:
Ketamine-Xylazine
15 - 20 + 1.1 – 2.2 IM (in same syringe) Prior to general anesthesia Can result in large volumes – consider using Telazol® or Telazol® combination as alternative
Recommended:
Telazol® alone (a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam – when reconstituted with 5 ml sterile water, a vial contains 50 mg/ml of each drug. Dose listed is based on 100mg/ml of combined active ingredients)
6 – 8 IM ( = .06 - .08 ml/kg) For sedation or pre-anesthesia Note that Telazol® must be stored refrigerated once reconstituted.
Telazol®-Ketamine-Xylazine (TKX) ~ 0.025 ml of cocktail per kg IM For sedation or pre-anesthesia Note that Telazol® must be stored refrigerated once reconstituted.
To mix: reconstitute Telazol® with ‘large animal xylazine (100mg/ml) instead of water; add 5 ml ketamine (concentration of 100mg/ml)
Xylazine – Telazol® 2.2 – 8.8 + 2 – 8.8 For sedation or pre-anesthesia Note that Telazol® must be stored refrigerated once reconstituted. To mix: reconstitute Telazol® with 5 ml. of ‘large animal xylazine (100mg/ml) instead of water.
Ketamine-Diazepam continuous infusion ~ 0.2 + ~ 0.0005 mg/kg/hr Sedation for imaging or other prolonged procedure – not adequate anesthesia for surgical procedures. Not adequate anesthesia for surgical procedures.
Reversal agents
Atipamezole ~ 1.0 subcutaneous or IM Any time medetomidine or xylazine has been used More specific for medetomidine than for xylazine (as a general rule, Atipamezole is dosed at the same volume as Medetomidine, though they are manufactured at different concentrations).
Other injectable anesthetics and tranquilizers
Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal) 20 - 60 IV single or intermittent bolus, or
2-20 mg/kg/hr IV continuous infusion
Recommended for terminal/acute procedures only, with booster doses as needed. Consider supplemental analgesia (opioid or NSAID) for invasive procedures.
Propofol 16 - 22 IV As induction agent, prior to general anesthesia with pentobarbital or inhalant Respiratory depression upon induction is possible.
Acepromazine 0.08 – 0.2 IM or SC May be used whenever ketamine combinations are used Usually only used in conjunction with anesthetics such as ketamine. Acepromazine is a tranquilizer and does not confer analgesia.
Opioid analgesia
Recommended:
Buprenorphine
0.005 - 0.1 SC (usually use .05 – 0.1 for major surgery)

Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 4-12hrs

When used as sole analgesic, typical regimen is: once at time of procedure, second dose will be administered 4-6 hours later.  Additional doses
every 8-12hrs as needed. Consider multi-modal analgesia with NSAID and local analgesic.

 

Butorphanol 0.1 – 0.5 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 4-6 hour For major procedures, require more frequent dosing than 12 hour intervals. Consider multi-modal analgesia with a NSAID
Oxymorphone 0.01 – 0.2 Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 3-4 hour, or for ‘rescue analgesia’ when buprenorphine is not potent enough More potent but shorter duration than buprenorphine or butorphanol.
Fentanyl patch 50 µg/hr Place patch 24 hours in advance of surgery and maintain for up to 3 days When severe post-surgical pain is anticipated.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia (NSAID) -- Note that prolonged use my cause renal, gastrointestinal, or other problems
Recommended:
Carprofen
2 - 4 SC or PO Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Meloxicam 0.2 – 0.3 PO, IM or SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Ketoprofen ~ 1.0 – 2.0 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Ketorolac 5 – 1.0 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Local anesthetic/analgesics (lidocaine and bupivacaine may be combined in one syringe for rapid onset and long duration analgesia)
Lidocaine hydrochloride May dilute to 0.5 -1% (=10mg/ml). May be mixed in same syringe with bupivacaine.
SC or intra-incisional
Use locally before making surgical incision Faster onset than bupivacaine but short (<1 hour) duration of action
Bupivacaine May dilute to 0.25 – 0.5%, May be mixed in same syringe with lidocaine.
SC or intra-incisional
Use locally before making surgical incision Slower onset than lidocaine but longer (~ 4-8 hour) duration of action