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RIO
THE INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC)

ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AT UCSF

I. Overview
II. Species-specific considerations
III. Commonly used anesthetics and analgesics
IV. Species-specific anesthesia-analgesia formularies:

Cat
Dog
• Frog
• Fish

• Guinea Pig
• Hamster
Mouse
Nonhuman primates

Rabbit
Rat
Swine

CAT FORMULARY

Note that all of these doses are approximations and must be titrated to the animal’s strain, age, sex and individual responses. Significant departures from these doses should be discussed with a veterinarian. Doses will also vary depending on what other drugs are being administered concurrently.

All doses are listed as milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) unless otherwise noted.

DRUG NAME DOSE (mg/kg) & ROUTE FREQUENCY NOTES
Inhalation anesthetics
Recommended:
Isoflurane or Halothane or Sevoflurane
1-3% inhalant to effect (up to 5% for induction). Up to 8% for sevoflurane Whenever general anesthesia is required Concurrent preemptive analgesia is recommended for survival surgery
Must use precision vaporizer.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) Up to 60% with oxygen Whenever deep sedation or general anesthesia is required Not acceptable for surgery as sole agent – usually used with inhalant anesthetic to potentiate effect and lower required dose
Ketamine combinations
Recommended:
Ketamine-Midazolam
5-10 + 0.1-0.2 IM or SC (in same syringe) As needed May not produce surgical-plane anesthesia for major procedures, but may be useful for restraint. Note that IM Ketamine combinations often sting upon injection.
Recommended: Ketamine-Diazepam 6 - 11 + 0.05 – 0.2 IV (in same syringe) As needed May not produce surgical-plane anesthesia for major procedures.
Ketamine-Medetomidine 5 - 10 + 0.6 – 1.0 IM or SC (in same syringe) As needed May not produce surgical-plane anesthesia for major procedures. If redosing, use ketamine alone. May be partially reversed with Atipamezole. Note that IM Ketamine combinations often sting upon injection.
Ketamine alone 10 - 22 IM or SC As needed Deep sedation, but not surgical anesthesia. Not often used alone.
Reversal agents
Atipamezole ~ 1.0 subcutaneous or IM Any time medetomidine or xylazine has been used More specific for medetomidine than for xylazine (as a general rule, Atipamezole is dosed at the same volume as Medetomidine, though they are manufactured at different concentrations).
Other injectable anesthetics and tranquilizers
Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal) 20 - 60 IV single or intermittent bolus, or
2-20 mg/kg/hr IV continuous infusion
Recommended for terminal/acute procedures only, with booster doses as needed. Occasionally used on survival basis when cortical evoked responses are being measured. Consider supplemental analgesia (opioid or NSAID) for invasive procedures.
Sodium thiopental (Pentothal) 13 – 26 IV As induction agent, prior to general anesthesia with pentobarbital or inhalant Consider supplemental analgesia (opioid or NSAID) for invasive procedures
Propofol 16 - 22 IV As induction agent, prior to general anesthesia with pentobarbital or inhalant Respiratory depression upon induction is possible.
Acepromazine 0.08 – 0.2 IM or SC May be used whenever ketamine combinations are used Usually only used in conjunction with anesthetics such as ketamine. Acepromazine confers no analgesia.
Opioid analgesia
Recommended:
Buprenorphine
0.005 - 0.1 SC

Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 4-12hrs

When used as sole analgesic, typical regimen is: once at time of procedure, second dose will be administered 4-6 hours later.  Additional doses
every 8-12hrs as needed. Consider multi-modal analgesia with NSAID and local analgesic.

 

Recommended:
Butorphanol
0.1 – 0.5 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 4-6 hour Consider multi-modal analgesia with a NSAID
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia (NSAID) -- Note that prolonged use my cause renal, gastrointestinal, or other problems
Recommended:
Carprofen
4-5 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Recommended:
Meloxicam
0.1 – 0.3 PO, IM or SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Ketoprofen ~ 1.0 – 2.0 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Ketorolac ~0.25 Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia Do not use more than 2-3 times per animal during any post-surgical period.
Local anesthetic/analgesics (lidocaine and bupivacaine may be combined in one syringe for rapid onset and long duration analgesia)
Lidocaine hydrochloride May dilute to 0.5 -1% (=10mg/ml). May be mixed in same syringe with bupivicaine.
SC or intra-incisional
Use locally before making surgical incision Faster onset than bupivacaine but short (<1 hour) duration of action
Bupivacaine
May dilute to 0.25 – 0.5%, May be mixed in same syringe with lidocaine.
SC or intra-incisional

Use locally before making surgical incision
Slower onset than lidocaine but longer (~ 4-8 hour) duration of action